In the introduction, define the problem clearly. If the problem is not stated in a reasonable, understandable way, the reader will have no interest in your solution. Follow with some review of the literature to allow the reader to understand why the study is necessary and how you attempted to resolve. Talk in general terms about techniques used to solve the problem, if necessary, but do not present any specifics about the protocols here. The final portion should be the statement of the principal results. Present the nature and the scope of the problem investigated.
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If the data are substantially flawed you will not include them in the paper; however, you should analyze and discuss your data in your lab notebook. You can use data from anyone currently taking bioc 311 (i.e., any student, in any section, this semester only!) or any other data that i upload into owl-space; acknowledge the source (i.e., include the names) of data in your final paper: "raw data" such. Remember that this writing assignment is to emulate a paper for publication, which is substantially different from a "laboratory report." Abstract (10 points) *McMillan,. 55-59 (3rd.) or 72-76 (4th.) The abstract is a concise, complete report of a scientific investigation that "stands alone" without further explanation. The abstract is typically one paragraph with 200 to 250 words. Lengthy discussions and references to the literature are omitted from the summary/abstract. The abstract must include basic justification for conducting the study research objectives basic methods used specific results/data major conclusions Introduction (20 points) *McMillan,. 59-61 (3rd.) or 76-78 (4th.) The Introduction should "introduce" the paper. The reader should be report presented with enough background information to be able to understand and evaluate the purpose of your study without having to refer to other works. The rationale for the study should be presented. Provide salient references but avoid trying to make an exhaustive review of the topic.
For additional information and lined examples, read. Writing Research Papers from, experimental biosciences Resources, additional References: Barrass,. (2002 scientists Must Write: A guide to better writing for scientists, engineers and students, second edition, routledge, london, Great Britain. (1997 scientific Papers and Presentations, Academic Press, san diego, ca, day,. How to Write and Publish a scientific Paper, fourth edition, Oryx Press, Phoenix,. (2002 a student Handbook for Writing in biology, sinauer Associates, Inc., sunderland,. Special notes for the research paper for bioc 311. Be aware of flaws or weaknesses in your data but do not belabor them with infinite analysis. Exceptions and inconsistency in your data should be mentioned and unsettled points described briefly.
The use of good references throughout essay the paper gives the work credibility by demonstrating an awareness of previous works. Writing a scientific article is not an easy task no matter how simple the actual experiment or concept. Practice, good planning, and organized record keeping are the only means to simplify the process. Revising your work, sometimes several times, is essential to producing a good final paper (see mcMillan,. 126-160 (3rd.) or 167-205 (4th.). Review the reading with assignments in McMillan,. Writing Papers in the biological Sciences, fourth Edition, bedford/St.
A scientific research paper is traditionally divided into four sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, and discussion. These sections are typically completed through an iterative process because no single section can be written without consideration of another. The introduction is compiled from reference material and reflects the thought processes or lines of reason that lead you to perform experiments in the laboratory. The remainder of the paper is constructed concurrently as the experiment is constructed and planned. In the final draft the organization of the materials and methods section is coordinated with the results section. The results section presents pertinent data in nearly chronological order and directs the reader along the same mental paths through the data that you took in solving the problem. The discussion section provides interpretation of the data and projections as to the meaning of the results.
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The only way to have something to revise is to write something down in the first place. The two main reasons I require you to write drafts of each section are 1) making you write something at intervals prevents your waiting until the night before the final paper is due to start writing 2) turning in a draft lets me give you. Submit all work in its final form (i.e., not handwritten, on a computer disk, as an attachment, or in an e-mail message)-only printed documents will be accepted except in special circumstances that must be approved by me in advance of the due date. For your own protection, i will make a copy of your final paper to keep and on file. When you submit your final paper, please put your work loosely in a paper folder with pockets (not the kind with 3-rings do not use staples or paper clips. Put your name and lab section on the outside of the folder. Please review my grading criteria and rubric for the final paper.
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One easy way to find out which books are currently considered "required reading" for a given topic is to find an academic book or article which is reasonably similar in its own topic, and to look at its first three or so footnotes. Introductions to academic works usually contain one large footnote early on which gives a brief listing of proper all of the books which any general reader of the paper is expected to be familiar with. When reading over a survey, keep an eye out for interesting issues or questions you might have. Looking at the footnotes in such works will also give you an idea of the sorts of sources which are available for these sorts of works (there will be more on sources in the next section). Don't fret edit, your topic might change half way into your research, or even while writing up the final paper — this is a natural occurrence and reflects the fact that you have been thinking it over for a longer period of time. Even if you aren't completely sure what your final "question" will be, don't be afraid to start doing the background secondary source research once you have a general idea of what you want your work to be about. History is not an exact science, and many important and interesting things will surface out of sheer serendipity as your work continues.
the southern United States?" These questions, without specific temporal delimiters, are likely too large to be answered in one research paper — entire books. However large questions can be made smaller by the use of temporal or thematic demarcation. For example, by changing our original question to "What were the experiences of slaves in the southern United States in the years just before the civil War?" puts a "cap" on how comprehensive our approach must be, and allows us to easily compartmentalize the past. Historical questions can be very broad or very narrow in scope and it does not necessarily affect how important or interesting the topic may. What is usually important about whether a topic will be historically "interesting" is whether it "speaks" to a particular larger question or issue. Searching the literature edit, starting without any topic at all can be difficult, even for the seasoned student. The first step towards finding an area of research is to narrow down the basic range of topics to an existing body of literature. For example, if you were wanting to write a paper related in some way to the discovery of the Americas by europeans, a good way to start searching for topics would be to find a survey book which would give an overview of the entire. A reference librarian should be able to help you find such a thing, as should any expert in the field (do not be afraid to e-mail him if his addresses are posted online).
A non-astronomical question might be "Is the sun morally good?" It might be a question answerable to a theologian or a philosopher, but an astronomer, using astronomer's tools (be they telescopes or mathematical formulae would have no way to even begin answering the question. Similarly, there are questions which fit within the study of best history and many which do not. Richard Nixon a good man?" would not be a historical question, and neither would "Was the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki evil?" These questions, while quite valid questions to ask in general, are not generally thought answerable by the historian using only the tools. Many good historical questions are about causes and changes. "Why did the United States bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki?" is a perfectly good historical question, one on which many books have been written. "Why did the roman Empire fall?" is another such question. "How did the experience of African Americans change after the civil Rights movement?" would be another. Sat become the standard test for American students?" is another.
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The most difficult part of any research paper is picking a topic. There is no supermarket sure-fire way to do it, and there is no systematic way to approach. This section will outline some of the basic considerations in thinking about how to pose a historical question which will stimulate your own interest as well as provide a workable approach to a research paper. What is a historical question? Edit, every discipline has its own sorts of questions which it tries to answer. A question in astronomy, for example, might be "Why does the sun sometimes have spots on it?" This is a question which stimulated a number of different research programs, using entirely different methods and assumptions, for hundreds of years. It is a question which can be answered using the tools of the discipline and the methodological approaches.