77 Economists measure the total factor productivity of agriculture and by this measure agriculture in the United States is roughly.7 times more productive than it was in 1948. 93 Workforce edit On the three-sector theory, the proportion of people working in agriculture (left-hard bar in each group, green) falls as an economy becomes more developed. Following the three-sector theory, the number of people employed in agriculture and other primary activities (such as fishing) can be more than 80 in the least developed countries, and less than 2 in the most highly developed countries. 94 Since the Industrial revolution, many countries have made the transition to developed economies, and the proportion of people working in agriculture has steadily fallen. During the 16th century in Europe, for example, between 55 and 75 of the population was engaged in agriculture; by the 19th century, this had dropped to between 35 and. 95 In the same countries today, the figure is less than. 94 At the start of the 21st century, some one billion people, or over 1/3 of the available work force, were employed in agriculture.
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This type of farming is practiced mainly in highly developed countries. 75 76 Contemporary agriculture edit Status edit China has the largest agricultural output of any country. 77 In the past century, agriculture has been characterized by increased productivity, the substitution of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labor, water pollution, and farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic, regenerative, and sustainable agriculture movements. 69 78 One your of the major forces behind this movement has been the european Union, which first certified organic food in 1991 and began reform of its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2005 to phase out commodity-linked farm subsidies, 79 also known as decoupling. The growth of organic farming has renewed research in alternative technologies such as integrated pest management and selective breeding. 80 Recent mainstream technological developments include genetically modified food. 81 Demand for non-food biofuel crops, 82 development of former farm lands, rising transportation costs, climate change, growing consumer demand in China and India, and population growth, 83 are threatening food security in many parts of the world. The International Fund for Agricultural development posits that an increase in smallholder agriculture may be part of the solution to concerns about food prices and overall food security, given the favorable experience of vietnam. 89 soil degradation and diseases such as stem rust are major concerns globally; 90 approximately 40 of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. 91 92 by 2015, the agricultural output of China was the largest in the world, followed by the european Union, India and the United States.
Another patch of land is selected and the process is repeated. This type of farming is practiced mainly in areas with abundant rainfall where the forest regenerates quickly. This practice is used in Northeast India, southeast Asia, and the Amazon Basin. 72 Spreading manure by hand in Zambia subsistence farming is practiced to satisfy family or local needs alone, with little left over for transport elsewhere. It is intensively practiced in Monsoon Asia and south-East Asia. 73 If the typical subsistence farmer is equivalent to a smallholder, then there are an estimated.5 billion such farmers in 2018, cultivating about 60 of the earth's arable land. 74 In summary intensive farming, the crops are cultivated to maximise profit, with a low fallow ratio and a high use of inputs.
67 68 Modern agriculture has raised political issues including water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies, leading to alternative approaches such as the organic movement. 69 70 reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples. Pastoralism involves managing domesticated animals. In nomadic pastoralism, herds of livestock real are moved from place to place in search of pasture, fodder, and water. This type of farming is practised in arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara, central general Asia and some parts of India. 71 In shifting cultivation, a small area of a forest is cleared by cutting down all the trees and the area is burned. The land is then used for growing crops for several years. When the soil becomes less fertile, the area is then abandoned.
57 58 Indigenous Australians, long supposed to have been nomadic hunter-gatherers, practised systematic burning to enhance natural productivity in fire-stick farming. 59 The gunditjmara and other groups developed eel farming and fish trapping systems from some 5,000 years ago. 60 There is evidence of 'intensification' across the whole continent over that period. 61 In two regions of Australia, the central west coast and eastern central Australia, early agriculture with crops of yams, native millet, and bush onions may have been practised in permanent settlements. 62 63 revolution edit In the middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture was transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to europe. 64, the columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc to europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice and turnips, and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep and goats to the Americas. 66 Irrigation, crop rotation, and fertilizers were greatly developed in the past 200 years, starting with the British Agricultural revolution. Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labor has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding. The haber-Bosch method allowed the synthesis of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on an industrial scale, greatly increasing crop yields.
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40 The aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, fertilized their soil, and developed chinampas manager or artificial islands. The mayas used extensive canal and raised field systems to farm swampland from 400. 41 42 The Incas domesticated the potato some 7,00010,000 years ago. Coca was domesticated in the Andes, as were the peanut, tomato, tobacco, and pineapple. 39 Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 3,600. 46 Animals, too, including llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs were domesticated in the region.
47 In North America, the indigenous people of the east domesticated crops such as sunflower, tobacco, 48 squash and Chenopodium. 49 50 Wild foods including wild rice and maple sugar were harvested. 51 The domesticated strawberry is a hybrid of a chilean and a north American species, developed by breeding in Europe and North America. 52 The indigenous people of the southwest and the pacific Northwest practiced forest gardening and fire-stick farming. The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation; a sort of "wild" permaculture. A system of companion planting called the Three sisters was developed on the Great Plains, the three crops being winter squash, maize, and climbing beans.
21 Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,0006,000. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium. 25 Irrigation was developed in the Indus Valley civilization by around 4,500. 26 There archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 bc in the Indus Valley civilization. 27 In China, from the 5th century bc there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. 28 Water-powered grain mills were in use by the 1st century bc, 29 30 followed by irrigation.
31 by the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron ploughshares and mouldboards. 32 33 These slowly spread westwards across Eurasia. 34 Asian rice was domesticated 8,20013,500 years ago in China, with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon. 35 36 In ancient Greece and Rome, the major cereals were wheat, emmer, and barley, alongside vegetables including peas, beans, and olives. Sheep and goats were kept mainly for dairy products. 37 38 In the Americas, crops domesticated in Mesoamerica (apart from teosinte) include squash, beans, and cocoa. 39 The turkey was probably domesticated in Mexico or the American southwest.
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Then, wild stands that had previously been harvested started to be planted, and essay gradually came to be domesticated. 16 17 civilizations edit Agricultural scenes of threshing, a grain store, harvesting with sickles, digging, tree-cutting and ploughing from Ancient Egypt. Tomb of nakht, 15th century bc in Eurasia, the sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 bc, relying on the tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC; seed-ploughs around 2,300. Farmers grew wheat, barley, vegetables such as lentils and onions, and fruits including dates, grapes, and figs. 18 Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on the nile river and its seasonal flooding. Farming year started in the predynastic period at the end of the paleolithic, after 10,000. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. 19 20 In India, wheat, barley, and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 bc, soon followed by sheep and goats.
11 Domestic pigs had multiple centres of origin in Eurasia, including Europe, east Asia and southwest Asia, 12 where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago. 13 In the Andes of south America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, coca, llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables simple were domesticated in New guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, 14 and was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was domesticated to maize by 6,000 years ago. 15 Scholars have developed a number of hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism ; examples are the natufian culture in the levant, and the early Chinese neolithic in China.
products, horticultural crops, and their related services." 4 This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, animal husbandry. 4 History edit main article: History of agriculture Origins edit main article: neolithic revolution Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. 5 Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. 7 rye was cultivated by at least 11,050. 8 From around 11,500 years ago, the eight neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 bc with earliest known cultivation from 5,700 bc, 9 followed by mung, soy and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. 10 Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and pakistan some 10,500 years ago.
Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, and technological developments have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage through contributions to global warming, depletion list of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrially produced meat. Genetically modified organisms are widely used, although they are banned in several countries. The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials (such as rubber ). Classes of foods include cereals (grains vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk and eggs. Over one third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the past several centuries. Contents Etymology and terminology edit The word agriculture is a late middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, and cultūra, " cultivation " or "growing".
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For other uses, see. Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life. 1, agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on pdf large-scale monoculture has in the past century come to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people worldwide still depend on subsistence agriculture.