The issues that dominate the way that we thingk aout and engage with new technologies are seldom those of industry and analysts. Four factors are identified: a) The importance and presence of the family and of friends, both in dealing with everyday issues and with exceptional events; b) Change and insecurity in work and employment; c) Distrust of media sources, on whatever issue; d) Information overload, seemingly. Finally the chapter discusses weaknesses of the method and the study and an agenda for future research. This information covers: Finding a university of St Andrews thesis. Search for theses in, saulcat. Tip: you can view a list of local theses in saulcat.
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Active delayer Passive delayer, positive attitude. Unsatisfied with technology, writer or does not currently have the resources. Thinks the technology is a good idea, but not sufficiently in need of the service or technology to go through the adoption process. Negative attitude, resists adoption of the technology by active strategies of avoidance and substitution. At interested in the technology, and able to avoid adoption by ignoring. Finally the chapter looks at what it is like to be a non-user of icts when many around appear to be adopting them. It identifies paper problems such as exclusion from relationships, from the future, feelings of inadequecy, conflict and frustration. However there are some positive things about being a non-user or limiting user: control, freedom, independence and pride. Chapter 11 Conclusions, summary The conclusions review the findings of the study, emphasising the importance of the social network and informal economy on understanding how and why people adopt icts, and also in resisting and remaining a non-user or limiting user. An understanding of how social netowkr work, and they way we rely on them and use them is clear if we want to understand the place of icts in our lives. The individual's personal and technical world crosses over all parts of their life space, so the analysis of consumption and domestication has to be carried over all these domains: home, work, public and third spaces.
Chapter 10 Non-Use Strategies, summary, this chapter proposes an Enhanced Barrier model, improving the rather simple moble traditionally used. It includes factors such as relvance, subjective barriers and knowledge barriers: Barrier Some characteristics, resource barriers, no access, no money, no time or space, no contact with technology. Relevance barriers, not relevant, no need, not part of everyday life, other more important ways of using resources. Symbolic and Subjective barriers, disapprove of technology or industry, dislike technology, feel uncomfortable with ict use, ignore technology. Knowledge barriers, do not know about the innovation, do not know how to adopt, how to use, how to cope with problems or how to innovate activities. It investigates strategies and tactics people employ to avoid adoption, and the reasons for choosing these, and how they are employed. Postponement of adoption plan is the most common tactic - including active and passive delay, active delay being the tactics of the rejector who feels they will eventually have to adopt, but want to do it on their own terms if possible. This highlights the fact that being a non-user, or limiting use, is a choice made by many in the population for a range of technologies.
This mix of benefits and problems means that our relationship with technologies is esssentially ambivalant, and we have to find a way to cope with the problems and the ambivalence. The chapter shows the ways the repsondents dealt with problems and ambivalence, in particular developing strategies based on their basic values, and using the local economy and local experts as much as formal sources. Chapter 9 Non-Adoption, summary, this chapter investigates the idea of non-adoption and non-use through the emperical data using the bean perspective. It covers non-adoption and on-use at home at work and in education, looking at the reasons people give for non-use. These include lack of interest, emphatic refusal, irrelevance of innovations, dislike of change and ability to rely on others. The study looked at icts in relation to financial resources at home and work, activities in work and as consumers, such as shopping, banking etc. More detailed investigation revealed different types of rejection, based on subjective, identity or political factors; non-adoption related to social exclusion and relationship problems; factors such as fear of loss of freedom and external restrictions on use; lack of time, money and knowledge; the imporetance. It concludes that although non-adoption has to be analysed from the persective book of the people not using technology, the problem of non-adoption and non-use gets put back with the technology developers and suppliers and the technology itself. Despite incredible advances in ict technology and its appearance in more and more situations, many products are still unsuitable for many applications and users.
Summary, most people experience problems with machines and new icts are no exception. Living and working with and around machines of is not only a story of benefits, but also of problems, uncertainties, demands for change and conflicts. For example, as well as being one of the most useful and flexible devices, the personal computer is also one of the most problematic, with technical problems, continual upgrades, problematic interfaces, and demands on time and money to name a few. The computer is only one of a series of ict products from the telephone onward that have been accompanied by a whole range of technical and non-technical problems. Many of those interviewed experienced problems adopting, using or owning icts. The type of problems that people encounter are emotional and social as well as technical and practical. This includes issues of identity, freedom, political concerns and exclusion.
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Sometimes people are able to use products they essay do not own or have direct access to by borrowing, or proxy use, by getting other to use them for them. Chapter 7 Local Expert, summary, this chapter invesigates the concept of the local expert as a key factor in the appropriation and ongoing use of icts in any community. These individuals provide trusted, if not always reliable, help for others making their steps in forming attitudes to innovations and adopting them. They also provide on-going support. Their expertise is local and relative, they have often become the local experts to their own surprise. They often bring their expertise across the boundaries of in their life sphere. From workplace to home, or home to workplace.
They are also often innovators, having to find their own way with new technology, using external sources of knowledge and expertise. This could be because they were para obliged to, or out of some sort of natural curiosity. Within a social network they are only one of a number of important individuals in the domestication process, with others playing the roles of enthusiast, sceptic, primary adopter and financier. They are not necessarily an opinion leader or the source of influence on underlying values, but they are a key role in helping others through the ups and downs of their own appropriation. The chapter looks at the stories of individual local experts, how they play this role, how they came to be the expert, and how they take to the responsibility. Chapter 8 living with Technologies.
This includes direct experience at work, at home, through the media, activities related to special interests, and the experiences of others. I introduce the environments in which the respondents in this study used and encountered icts and then show the role of the social network in exposing them to innovations. This starts to show how an individual links together, on the one hand, various spatial and organisational domains of everyday life, and on the other, formal and informal networks of family friends, colleagues and other acquaintances. Chapter 6 The Informal Economy of icts. Summary, the everyday experience of icts, consumer electronics and electronic media, especially computers, far from being an individually consumed commodity, is that of an informal exchange and sharing of artefacts, information and knowledge.
In this study many people borrow, lend, share, give and receive as gifts, inherit, marry into, pass on, and sell, hardware and software. They also exchange advice, expertise, and help each other with maintenance, repairs and set-ups. All respondents invest time, money and energy in other people, and get a great deal out of those relationships too. It is clear that this is a key aspect of the way that we appropriate and use icts. I propose that the Informal Economy is fundamental to the uptake and continued use innovations. Most models of diffusion and adoption of technologies and innovations assume that it is an individual acts in a social context. The network or significant others - peer groups, reference groups - influence attitudes and adoption of discrete innovations. However there are several dynamic processes in innovation and adoption, and there is continual support and exchange in use and adoption of products. Many products do not need to be owned to be used, or for the consumer to be affected by their presence.
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These were complemented with grous interviews, home and work visits and frequent contact with the principal respondent. This chapter also introduces the bean model for providing first analysis of the data according to background, events, Activities and the social Network. Chapter 4 The case Studies; Summary, this chapter gives details of the 4 networks and 25 individuals interviewed for this research. These people lived in Scotland, in rural and urban areas, ranging from 4 - 75 years old, with a range of work, educational, family and economic backgrounds. Some of the groups involved interviews with family members at home, others with colleagues at work, including home and workplace visits. Chapter 5 icts in everyday life. Summary, this chapter investigates the circumstances in which people encounter icts, where they find out about them, and where they use them. The chapter is organised according tothe bean model: describing encounters according to particular events, such as golf Christmas, or activities, such as work, bring up children or study, and the role of the social network in bringing us into contact with them.
It draws on theories such as domestication, social shaping of technology, feminist studies, diffusion of innovations, theories of consumption, consumer research literature, studies of communities and social networks, and theories of resistance to technology and technophobia. It includes empirical matieral and findings from many other studies. The bibliography provides a full list of sources. Chapter 3 Research Design, summary, this chapter looks at the difficulties of studying everyday life situations, particularly around the adoption and domestication of new technologies, which often takes place over long periods. It proposes a solution to problem to investigating non-users and well as users, who are often less able to talk about new technology; and a solution to the problem to picking a particular technology to study in advance, when it may never be adopted. The method used in this study was based on long interviews with members of social networks that cross home, biography work, friends and family boundaries, based on, but not constrained by the network suggested by a key respondent. Wo interviews were conducted with each respondent over a year period, to get insights into changes in technoogy use, and changging ideas and attitudes.
is being exposed to these new technologies, the ideas surrounding them and the effects of their implementation by others. While particular technologies, applications, visions and companies may come and go, new relationships, way of seeing the world, classes of use and industries are emerging. How is this happening? Governments and industry may be making the big decisions and investments, but they do not do so alone. Decisions about new technology and its application are taken by everyone, however much power they wield, and in a market these decisions add up, affecting, to a lesser or greater extent, sociotechnical change. Behaviour and decisions are informed not only by rational decisions based on information from proper sources, but from everyday lived experiences, imaginative images, personal and institutional sources, personal and accounted histories, and worked out through relationships with people, organisations and with the obduracy and affordances. This is expressed to industry as the consumer power of the mass market, taking new information technologies from technical subcultures and highly specialised industries into global culture and the everyday working and home lives of the majority of the population. Chapter 2 Literature review, summary, this extensive chapter reviews and analyses a wide range of literature that deals with issues of the use of technology, its adoption, diffusion in a community, the role of the social network and members of that network in shaping technology.
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