As predictability was also a critical aspect of urt, the evidence would suggest that cmc relationships that developed on Facebook took on the same conventional characteristics of FtF interactions. Consequently, while the context for communication is entirely different in an online setting, the means and social processes involved in developing friendships was still consistent. However, it is important to understand that Facebook offers an environment where we tend to know most of our connections in person, see their pictures and have the ability to seek out information and context clues from their activity. Therefore, it is also important to study how urt and the strategies apply in cmc when we do not necessarily know or have existing FtF relationships with the other person. Such a case study is other online dating sites. Eharmony and uncertainty reduction theory eharmony offers a great example to understand how urt applies to a cmc setting where users may not know their connections very well. Neil Warren utilized his 35 years of clinical experience to launch a service that would utilize scientific research on cmc to help people develop meaningful relationships in a safe environment (eHarmony,. Indeed, eharmony uses a guided communication process to help users meet one another and reduce uncertainty.
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While users can share photos, videos and other forms of multimedia, the factors of proximity and physical cues are still not there. Drawing on research from Walther (2008 Sheldon remarked that people can develop online relationships that are similar to or better than normative ftF interactions (Sheldon, 2009,. Essentially, cmc settings are successful in fostering relationships because visual cues are not requirements of interaction and when they are necessary, textual cues were seen to be books comparable alternatives. Facebook relationships, facebook relationships thrive on the level of intimacy within self-disclosure. According to Sheldons first model, predictability fully mediates the relationship between self-disclosure and trust (Sheldon, 2009,.16). This means that the more we disclose to others in terms of quality, not so much quality, the more meaningful the relationship becomes. This supports urt because as we disclose more and trust others, we develop stronger relationships. As we develop stronger online relationships, we reduce the overall uncertainty about the other person. Thus, interactions on Facebook appear more like ftF communication than meets the eye. Since predictability is related to uncertainty in both Facebook and in a face-to-face context, and the more uncertainty that existed in the relationship, the less trust also existed (Sheldon, 2009,.17).
These services were designed to facilitate, foster and encourage the growth of successful relations that extended outside of cmc. Before evaluating the relationship between urt and online dating, it is important to first understand how it applies to snss like facebook. Pavica Sheldon, in Ill poke you. Self-Disclosure, paper social Attraction, Predictability and Trust as Important Predictors of Facebook relationships tackles how social attraction on Facebook influences our communication habits towards other people. Her study of 243 college students suggested that urt did apply cohesively in this cmc setting: users who interacted a lot tended to experience less uncertainty (Sheldon, 2009,.1). Sheldon sought out to prove or disprove the original hypothesis by berger and Calabrese (1975) that stipulated that as uncertainty is further reduced, the amount of verbal communication will increase (Sheldon, 2009,.17). Indeed, from 1996 to 2009, not much has changed in terms of what is possible within the realm of cmc.
About a third had used the london telephone (35.3 the postal service (28.4 or face-to-face communication (33.3) to contact their on-line friends. The average number of channels used was.68 (sd.23 and nearly two thirds (63.7) of our respondents with personal relationships had used communication channels other than the computer. These findings imply that relationships that begin on line rarely stay there (Parks, 1996,.13). Computer mediated communication fosters new relationships. This research implies that even as early in 1996, the internet and cmc did foster the development of new relationships that eventually extended out of the scope of online interaction. This had a lot to do with how users managed uncertainty with the tools they had. Since visual and aural cues were not always present, the use of smileys and other improvised cues were used to develop rapport with other individuals (Parks, 1996,.3). Essentially, the way that people communicated online in 1996 involved an adaptation of visual cues to textual ones. By 2005, the growth of online dating sites resulted in services that were tailored specifically to meet the needs to people looking to find relationships online.
Next, it is important to understand the early schools of thought and development of online communication. Making Friends in Cyberspace, offered a very early study and analysis of cmc before the rise of snss, online dating sites and heavy user flow. Parks remarked that one early school of thought claimed that online relationships are shallow, impersonal and often hostile (Parks, 1996,.1). Parks early research also supported the notion that positive personal relationships should occur infrequently in online settings (Parks, 1996,.2). His literature review argued that this was true because people within cmc settings exert more verbal aggression, blunt disclosure and negative behavior in comparison to groups in FtF settings (Parks, 1996,.2). Despite the negative feedback from other scholars, parks found evidence that online relationships can develop and people can adapt their behavior to account for the missing aspects of interaction, like physical proximity and frequency. Building meaningful relationships online, for instance, even in early as 1996, parks argued that online settings can foster the growth of meaningful relationships, despite the shortcomings of missing cues in FtF communication. In his study, parks found that within newsgroups, personal relationships were common and that they seemed to develop equally in all sectors that were examined (Parks, 1996,.6). Even more surprising is the notion that the relationships that developed online tended to expand to FtF communication over time: Although nearly all respondents used direct E-mail (98.0) in addition to newsgroup postings, a surprising number also supplemented computer-mediated communication with other forms of contact.
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According to gibbs et al (2010 uncertainty leads to information-seeking behavior, the goal of which is to verify the credibility of these potential partners (p. This means that as we meet new people, good we want to find out more about them to reduce our uncertainty about them. However, studies suggest that we are also hesitant to divulge personal information about ourselves improve so easily. In fact, interactants in initial traditional interpersonal encounters prefer symmetric disclosure, in which parties both seek and provide similar information at the same rate of exchange (Gibbs et al, 2010,. This means that as we are looking for information about others, we tend to only divulge information at the same rate as other people do in FtF communication. This would make sense as we tend to fear judgment by other people that we do not know as well. Uncertainty reduction theory, there also exist some demographic differences in urt.
According to william Gudykunst and Mitchell Hammer in The Influence of Ethnicity, gender, and dyadic Composition on Uncertainty reduction In Initial Interactions, there were differences among blacks and whites in their communicative behavior. Their study of 485 university students across different ethnicities and genders revealed how blacks do not utilize interrogation as an uncertainty reduction strategy as widely as do whites (Gudykunst, 1987,. Moreover, their results did not suggest that gender played a role in using uncertainty reduction strategies (Gudykunst, 1987,. This means that men and women tend to act similarly in reducing uncertainty in social situations. High self-monitors, however, more confident attributions than low self-monitors and seek more information from people whom they intend to interact with in the near future (Gudykunst, 1987,. Essentially, the urt strategy of information seeking was higher in those that were more self-conscious of their behavior. Other than that, ethnicity and gender did not affect urt in the FtF context that the study was researched within.
This will allow us to analyze exactly how applicable urt is to cmc settings and how well the dating service tailors to the different context of communication. Furthermore, we will look at case studies specific to online dating sites like m and eharmony. Gibbs (2006) will provide an in-depth study of m members to show that in an online setting, members tend to practice similar uncertainty reduction strategies in anticipation of a ftF meeting. Another study by gibbs (2010) will offer insight into how urt applies, or doesnt apply, directly to online dating sites. Specifically, what strategies are mostly utilized and what cues are critical to the overall interaction. Face to face interaction.
In meeting new people FtF, we tend to engage in behaviors that reduce our uncertainty about the other person. Dawkins (2010 noting work from Berger and Calabrese (1975 remarked that uncertainty reduction is a primary motivating factor for communication (Dawkins, 2010,. The way in which we reduce this uncertainty is by utilizing the seven factors: verbal communication, nonverbal affiliative expressiveness, information-seeking behavior, intimacy level, reciprocity, liking and perceived similarities and dissimilarities (Dawkins, 2010,. This original urt was supplemented by berger (1995) by including that humans tend to reduce uncertainty by utilizing one or all of the three strategies: passive, active and interactive (Dawkins, 2010,. Of the strategies listed, observing others where the person is likely to act natural is passive while being in direct contact with them is active (Twente,. An interactive strategy, however, includes communicating with the person directly in an effort to find out more about the person. The interactive strategy of engaging in information seeking behavior is by far the most important aspect of reducing uncertainty.
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Gudykunst (1987) will also discuss how urt applies within the contexts of different ethnicities and sex. This will allow us to get comprehensive background information. Development of computer mediated communication, next, it is important to have a basic understanding of how cmc developed and the early schools of thought that analyzed this interaction (Parks, 1996). While highly pessimistic, parks offered evidence that online relationships can not only be successful, but can develop into eventual FtF interaction. Before diving into the online dating context, it is relevant to review how communication and urt applies within the realm of snss like facebook where users know each other. Sheldon (2009) will show that interaction on Facebook offers friend a wealth of information regarding how we deal with uncertainty within a network where we tend to know most of the individuals in person, or have at least met them on one occasion. Also, sheldon will demonstrate that individuals in sns use specific cues and elements of interaction alongside strategies of urt to predict their behavior. Finally, we will investigate how online dating sites like eharmony integrate scientific principles of communication and how well they apply to urt. A general view of the process of meeting individuals and how communication is facilitated will be offered by the eharmony website (eHarmony,.
The concept of being a self-monitor will be integral in our discussion of online dating because the information we choose to display online is usually highly selective and for the purpose of attracting a mate for a ftF interaction. Finally, urt will refer to the classic theory by berger (1986) that theorized that humans use specific strategies and cues before divulging more personal information (p. Urt will be discussed more thoroughly later in the paper. In our discussion, it is important to review relevant literature english regarding technology, use of social media and relationships, communication and online dating in general. Firstly, we will discuss the original theories regarding FtF communication as outlined in urt. Berger and Calabrese (1975 (Dawkins, 2010) and (Gibbs et al, 2010) will give relevant background information and details. Moreover, Twente (N.D.) will outline the specific strategies and factors that influence human behavior regarding reducing uncertainty.
three basic, yet essential, strategies that humans utilize in reducing anxiety when meeting another person (Twente,. While the implementation of social networking and dating sites have changed the way in which we communicate with one another, the rules of social interaction according to urt still apply, albeit in different contexts. Relevant terminology, firstly, it is important to define relevant terms and premises that will aid our discussion. Computer Mediated Communication (hereafter referred to as cmc) is any communication that takes place in an online setting, such as snss, online dating sites like eharmony and m or e-mail. Face to face (hereafter referred to as FtF) interaction is the traditional face to face interaction that exists among humans where visual cues are present. A critical premise of our discussion is that people who use online dating sites via cmc are using it in the hope that it will lead to eventual FtF communication. Another important term will be self-monitor. According to citations in Gudykunst (1987 self-monitoring can be characterized as self-observation and self-control guided by situational cues to social appropriateness (Gudykunst, 1987,.
Technology has undoubtedly changed the way that human beings communicate with one another today. As the internet has expanded heavily in the last ten years, so have online products and services that utilize communication on a mass scale. As more users are using the internet, cmc is popular within the context of online Social Networking Sites (SNS). Within the realm of sns, online dating sites like eharmony, m and even Tinder have also become popular because they are tailored to individuals looking to meet potential mates. According to gibbs et al (2010 over ten million Americans have a profile on at least one dating website (p. Internationally, m has over twelve-million members (Gibbs, 2006,.153). This new technological landscape of communication poses both risks and opportunities for the user who is looking to find a potential mate.
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Online dating Essay examples kibin, it looks like you've lost connection to our server. Please check your internet connection or reload this page. Scroll to top 8 total results, company. This is a blog on computer mediated communication and online dating. The following sample research paper shows how mini those who engage in online dating undergo a sociological process of reducing uncertainty. Social networking sites have shown to be the main driving force behind online dating and much research has done been on this behalf to show how it is changing the rules of dating, so to speak. Computer mediated communication: Online dating and uncertainty reduction.