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Doing a literature review — university of leicester
The three seemingly evident paradoxes to virtual employees were researched by pearlson and saunders (2001). Pearlson is the President of plan kp partners and Zero time Institute, and is the co-author. Zero time: Providing Instant Customer Value. Saunders is a professor of mis at the University of Oklahoma, and is the associate editor. Mis quarterly, decision Sciences journal, Information Systems Research, and, information Resources Management journal. The three paradoxes explored in their study was how telecommuting has both an increase in structure and flexibility, focuses on the individual and teams, and has both an increase and decrease in control. They see four solutions, for managers, to surviving these paradoxes. The first is to accept the paradox. The second thing a manager can do is clarify the employees point of view. Third, a manager must have an accounting for time from the virtual employee. And, fourth, the manager must use new perspectives, as the tried and true of yesterday simply does not apply.
And, lastly, the authors note that there is question of jurisdiction and venue when workplace disputes occur with virtual employees. They feel that Congress needs to clarify these issues, and management needs to be aware of them, in order to protect both the employees and the organizations rights. Their article sheds best opens up the discussion of managing virtual employees to include a facet many would not initially consider. Issues, in which managers are typically well versed, such as the family medical leave act, Americans with Disabilities Act, and Workmens Compensation laws, are not written to take into account virtual employees. Other more practical managerial challenges arise as well, that goes alongside these other employment law issues. Taxation issues are another legal challenge for virtual employees. Fair methods of taxation must be insured when a virtual employee lives in one state, while an employer is located in another.
To counter these challenges, cascio (2000) notes that managers need to shift their focal point. Instead of focusing on time in which tasks are accomplished, they must concentrate on actual results achieved. As mentioned, formal and informal effective communication skills have to be a part of the managers repertoire, as well as the ability to delegate effectively. In addition, managers must have an open, positive attitude when it comes to finding solutions to the challenges that will inevitable occur in virtual-work arrangements. In the end, its a fairly thorough discussion of the benefits, challenges, and methods of management important to virtual employers. Gabel and Mansfield (2003 both Associate Professors of Legal Studies, risk management and Insurance department,. Mack robinson College of Business, georgia state University, discuss a completely defend aspect of virtual employees that affects management, the legal ramifications of virtual employees. With employees telecommuting, managers are not able to control the time, method or manner tasks are accomplished, as they are when employees are onsite. In addition, the distinction between employees and independent contractors becomes less clear.
Guidelines for writing a literature review
Complimentary technology, such as m, a free web bulletin-board service, can archive employee conversations for review and reference later. Troncos credentials were not discussed, but some very valuable information was put forth. A valid point was made about communication and appreciation, as oftentimes employees in all fields that are working virtually feel disconnected from the rest of the organization. And, it may be easier for managers not to express their appreciation without physically seeing the employee day in and out. Cascio (2000 a professor of management at University of Colorado at Denver, agrees with Tronco in that communication is of critical importance; however he goes on to discuss in more detail the benefits and challenges that are often encountered in virtual workplaces. Reductions in real estate expenses, increased productivity, increased profits, improved customer service, access to global markets, and environmental benefits are some of the reasons why organizations turn to telecommuting. (Cascio, 2000) However, despite the sound business reasons for implementing virtual employees, difficulties abound.
Set up and maintenance costs are one such challenge that an organization must consider. In addition, cultural clashes, isolation and lack of trust, can make the arrangement less cost efficient then housing an employee in-house. These challenges are emphasized by the physical separation of workers from their managers. This is a new world for managers, managing people they cannot physically see. In addition, management must realize that their skills are needed more than ever, despite the lack of warm bodies sitting in their immediate office.
Watson-Manheim, Chudoba, and Crowston (2002) note that virtual work environments create discontinuities (which) are gaps or a lack of coherence in aspects of work. The following literature review discusses previous research on the topic of virtual employees in the workforce, and was more narrowly defined to the topic of the challenges that are faced in managing these new workers. Surprisingly, there was no relevant research available dealing with the management of virtual it personnel specifically; yet, much of the research done on managing virtual employees, in general, was relevant to it professionals and informative. However, the lack of it profession specific research clearly emphasizes an area where research is currently lacking. Literature review: Tronco (2001) discusses the challenges often faced by managers in ensuring that employees are functioning as productively as possible when working virtually.
He notes, An increasing number of companies are finding that, for some of its employees, working from home just makes sense. Employees who are entrepreneurial, independent, dependable and creative by nature often work best as virtual employees. (Tronco, 2001) However, in addition to these benefits, there are challenges as well. To overcome these challenges, Tronco suggests ensuring that several steps are being taken. First, he emphasizes the importance of regular communication with virtual employees. Expressed appreciation is also key to successful virtual employee management. And, finally, ensure that technology is being utilized to its fullest to facilitate communication. For example, organizations can use tools such as instant messaging, and a free voice-mail/fax/email service to receive faxes.
Writing a literature review: six steps to get you from start to finish
In 2000, cascio noted, virtual workplaces, in which employees operate remotely from each other and from managers, are a reality, and will become even more common in the future. Information Technology team members are particularly well suited for virtual positions. Technology today allows it professionals to remotely assist users, at any hour of the day. Innovations such as web literature cams have even added a personal touch to remote it staff. However, managing virtual employees requires new strategies, to ensure they are performing as effectively and efficiently as possible. Kirkman, rosen, gibson, tesluk, mcPherson (2002) note the challenges virtual employees my face, especially as members of virtual teams. They identify five challenges that organizations can expect to encounter in establishing, maintaining, and supporting remote virtual teams,. G., building trust, cohesion, and team identity, and overcoming isolation among virtual team members.
the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. It is now commonplace for employees to work, at least in part, from offsite. Telecommuting is a reality that has allowed companies to reduce costs, become more competitive, and facilitate happier more productive employees. Virtual employees, or telework is one of the most radical departures from standard working conditions in the suite of flexible work practices now gaining widespread acceptance. (Daniels, lamond, standen, 2001). Literature review: Managing Professionals in Virtual Environment. Executive summary: As technology has evolved, the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. In addition, it has allowed employers assist their employees in meeting that ever so delicate work-life balance. As Tronco (2001) notes, an increasing number of companies are finding that, for some of its employees, working from home just makes sense.
Using comparisons with other diary literature, whilst you may be reviewing an individual piece of literature, this does not mean that you should ignore any other literature that has been written. In fact, by comparing the literature that you are reviewing with other works, it can help to give you a starting point for any evaluations. Using reviews and opinions of other people. Whilst the review may be based on your own interpretation of the literature, according to a range of subjective and objective criteria that you may have set yourself, you may also wish to look at any reviews and opinions other people. In fact, it is almost essential that you look at any other studies, reviews or opinions that have been written by other scholars or relevant persons, as this will help to substantiate anything that you are saying, and give more credibility to your work. Proofreading and checking the work, when writing a literature review, there is a good chance that the work will be for a subject such as English language. As a result, it is important that the language that you use is free of any mistakes, such as spelling and grammatical errors.
Sample literature reviews - literature review: Conducting
When it comes to writing a phD thesis literature review, there are various things to bear presentation in mind in order to ensure that you write a high quality piece of work. The five elements listed below can help you to write a strong essay. Introducing new ideas and concepts, ideally, when writing a phD thesis, you should produce a unique and original piece of work. Therefore, if you want to produce a strong essay, it is a good idea to introduce new ideas and concepts. For example, you may wish to review the piece of literature in a new or different way or, alternatively, you may wish to look at an aspect of the literature that has not been discussed before. Including both positive and negative points. It is important that you not only concentrate on the positive aspects of the literature that you are reviewing, but also any negative points as well. Essentially, by including both negative and positive points, you can ensure that you produce a balanced and fair piece of work, which will be strongly written.